Unit Five - Key Concepts

Patriotism- Is a love and devotion to one's country. It is also related to nationalism. Patriotism is a love of and loyalty to one's country. A patriot is someone who loves, supports, and is prepared to serve their country. A patriot can also be a person who wants to join the military because they're inspired by patriotic movies. During the 1st and 2nd World Wars, there was a rising in jingoism within America. This term refers to overly zealous patriots, which were assured of America's superiority. This often translated into the war films which were designed to rally support for the wars and maintain a high level of moral on the home front. It is a love of and loyalty to one's country. A patriot is someone who lovesand supports his or her country .

Propaganda- form of communication that is aimed at influencing the attitude of a community toward some cause or position, presents information primarily to influence an audience, often presents facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis, or uses loaded messages to produce an emotional rather than rational response to the information presented. The desired result is a change of the attitude toward the subject in the target audience to further a political agenda. Propaganda can be used as a form of political warfare. Propaganda also portrayed the opposing country as an evil or the aggressor that needed to be fought against so that certain rights could be kept.

Isolationism- Foreign policy adopted by a nation in which the country refuses to enter into any alliances, foreign trade or economic commitments, or international agreements, in hopes of focusing all of its resources into advancement within its own borders while remaining at peace with foreign countries by avoiding all entanglements of foreign agreements. a policy of nonparticipation in international economic and political relations.

McCarthyism- A fear campaign led by Sen. Joseph McCarthy to determine if average citizens were communist spies. Was a domestic threat to civil liberties during the Cold War in addition to the fear of Russian invasion. McCarthy led committees in the senate trying to prove citizens' guilt. lasting roughly from the late 1940s to the late 1950s and characterized by heightened fears of communist influence on American institutions and espionage by Russian agents. The term is also now used more generally to describe reckless, unsubstantiated accusations, as well as demagogic attacks on the character or patriotism of political adversaries.

Hollywood Blacklist- The mid-twentieth-century list of screenwriters, actors, directors, musicians, and other U.S. entertainment professionals who were denied employment in the field because of their political beliefs or associations, real or suspected. Artists were "blacklisted" and barred from work on the basis of their alleged membership in or sympathy toward the American Communist Party.

House on Un-American Activities: Created in 1938 to investigate disloyalty to the United States during and after World War 2. The committee particularly targeted suspected Communists, especially in the Hollywood industry, blacklisting many professionals, which would give them future trouble in finding jobs. HUAC also targeted and stated that high position members in the federal government were Communists. Its decline started in the 1950s, as Truman stated that HUAC was the "most un-American thing in the country today." Famous cases include the Alger Hiss and Whittaker Chambers trials. The committee was successful in arousing the Red Scare of Communism in the US by its accusations.

War Bond- Debt securities is issued by a government for the purpose of financing military operations during war. It is an emotional appeal to patriotic citizens to lend the government their money. They generate government capital and allow for the civilians to become active within the war effort. War Bonds also control inflation, thus helping the economy at the same time. War Bonds were pivotal for the country in question to be able to afford fighting the war. Wars of that time often turned to total war, which means that all resources were turned towards attempting to win the war effort. The economy completely shifted and every industry sort of froze to allow for gathering resources for war. Big factories that produced cars produced tanks and factories that made jeans made army uniforms. Because of this style of total war, another source of income was needed so that the government could afford to pay for everything. War bonds usually had a relatively large payout and that way citizens, especially wealthy citizens, could make an investment while helping the war effort. They were once very popular.

Hollywood's Role in WWII- Hollywood was recruited by U.S. to help people think that the war was something to be proud to be a part of. Many of the movies created by Hollywood during the time of WWII had strong Anti-Hitler sentiment and were used in almost a propaganda type way to promote the war as something which was necessary and proper for the United States to be involved in. The movies showed a type of heroism that made war very romantic and made every young boy want to fight against the fascists and help make the world a better place. Actors showed support and so people followed suit, the movies increased patriotism tenfold and made the war a total American effort. Even if people were not actually fighting, they were all doing things to somehow help the people who were fighting. Hollywood united America against the enemies in the war.

Pacifist- Opposed to war or to violence of any kind; causes him or her to refuse being drafted into military service; violence, even in self-defence, is unjustifiable under any conditions and that negotiation is preferable to war as a means of solving disputes. When a person is very apposed to war and protests against it. And they are even apposed to any types of violence. They are into things like world peace. Pacifism may be based on moral principles or pragmatism. Principled pacifism holds that at some point along the spectrum from war to interpersonal physical violence, such violence becomes morally wrong. Pragmatic pacifism holds that the costs of war and inter-personal violence are so substantial that better ways of resolving disputes must be found. Pacifists in general reject theories of Just War. Advocacy of pacifism can be found far back in history and literature.

Conscientious Objector- Claimed the right to refuse to perform military service on the grounds of freedom of thought, conscience, or religion. Conscientious Objectors are usually assigned to another service within the civilian field, most consider themselves pacifists, etc. They can serve in non-combatant positions (including service on the battlefield as a corpsman or other unarmed person) or they can serve in non-military public service assignments. They are usually not slackers or traitors and deserve respect for making difficult decisions before getting someone hurt or killed in combat.

The Ideal Platoon - In this platoon, there would be different races and ethnicities such as white, black, Hispanic, and Asian soldiers fighting side by side. There were also the young patriotic boys fighting with the experienced bitter veterans. All of these added up to the “ideal platoon.” There is not one main protagonist, the whole platoon is the protagonist. This is opposite from westerns where there is only one main character.
The reason why "the ideal platoon" was invented was for government propaganda. Viewers saw soldiers from all different ethnicities fighting side by side. This usually wasn't the case. Although they were fight for the same thing the soldiers might of not been so kind to the minority soldiers. Usually the veteran soldiers would lead the platoon, while the younger recruits would admire them.